What Are Neurodevelopmental Disorders (NDD)?
Neurodevelopmental disorders are a group of disorders in which the central nervous system gets affected. It includes developmental brain dysfunction such as impaired motor function, learning, language or non-verbal communication. NDD is an inability to reach emotional, cognitive and motor developmental milestones. In terms of genetics, different types of mutation are associated including chromosomal rearrangements and point mutations.
Some of the neurodevelopmental disorders are:
- Developmental coordination disorder
- Tic disorders like Tourette’s disorder
- Intellectual disability
- Autism Spectrum, Disorder
- Specific Learning disorder
- Child onset Fluency Disorder
- Speech Sound Disorder
Neurodevelopmental disorders are often diagnosed in childhood, and can last into adulthood. Minor symptoms always present in the body until adulthood because of not diagnosing properly.
What Causes Neurodevelopmental Disorders?
Neurodevelopmental disorders occur because of complex genetic and environmental factors that change brain development. In numerous cases, we know about genetic and environmental factors, but in some cases, we don’t. It would usually occur when the father might have a learning disability, and his son might have ADHD. NDD can be defined as when a brother might have DLD, and his sister might have Autism. It’s important to consider how much the problem interferes with social or occupational success before diagnosing DLD.
- Genetic Disorders
- Immune Dysfunction
- Infectious Diseases
- Metabolic Disorders
What Are Stages of Neurodevelopment?
The adult brain is developed during the embryological formation of the nervous system. Neurogenesis, cell migration, cell differentiation and neuronal cell death are the first cellular processes in the brain. These stages produce circuits that mediate a highly complex set of behaviors. Neural circuits continue to develop the interactions between the brain and environment.
- Cell Migration
- Cell Differentiation
- Neuronal Cell Death
- Synapse Rearrangement
How Are Neurodevelopmental Disorders Diagnosed?
Neurodevelopmental disorders are diagnosed by assessment of the presence of characteristic symptoms or behaviors in a child. It can be confirmed that genetic testing and disease-related genetic and genomic factors are detected by karyotype analysis.